Category: Microbiology chapter 1 notes

Please join StudyMode to read the full document. How did he do this? What was the result of this body of work? This healthy mouse got sick. He then removed the spleens from the sick mice and isolated the anthrax spore. He injected that into healthy mice and they got sick. Microbiology Definition II. Scope of Microbiology A. Infectious Agents 1. Prions 2.

Microbiology

Viroids 3. Viruses B. Prokaryotes - Bacteria 1. Eubacteria 2. Archaea bacteria C. Eukaryotes 1. Algae 2. Protozoans 3. Food Production 1. Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, 2. Saccharomyces cerevisiae B. Oxygen production C. Nitrogen Fixation D. Decomposition E. Bioremediation F.

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Antibiotics G. Biotechnology and research H. Normal flora I. Pathogens malaria parasite, E. Why are some of these challenges emerging?

The methods of microbiology 1 If you are viewing a specimen though a 60X objective lens on a compound microscope, what is the likely total magnification? How does a lens produce a magnified image? Give examples of each. General Purpose Media General Purpose media is designed to grow most organisms and do not contain growth inhibitors. Differential Media Differential media contain a component that allow an observable change when a specific chemical reaction takes place.

Simmons Citrate Agar is an example of a differential medium. In Simmons Citrate Agar, there is a pH indicator that turns from green to blue when citrate is utilized as the sole carbon source. Selective Media Selective media encourage the growth of some organisms and suppress the growth of others. Dyes, antimicrobials, and salts are all examples of selective agents used for this purpose.Sign in. Don't have an account? We weren't able to detect the audio language on your flashcards. Please select the correct language below.

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Set the Language Close. Related Flashcards Biology Chapter 3 Terms. Add to Folders Close. Please sign in to add to folders. Upgrade to Cram Premium Close. Upgrade Cancel. Study your flashcards anywhere! How to study your flashcards. Play button. Card Range To Study through. Study organisms too small to be seen with the naked eye. Anthony Van Leeuwenhoek.

The first to observe bacteria. Louis Pasteur. Father of modern microbiology, refuted spontaneous generation by a series of experiments. Role of microorganisms. Together with viruses have killed far more people in the world than war however life could not exist without them. Production of nitrogen and O2, decomposers, food and alcohol production, bioremediation. The use of living organisms to degrade environmental pollutants. Genetic engineering.To login with Google, please enable popups.

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Microbiology Chapter 1 Study Guide

Microbiology Chapter 1 Notes. Edit a Copy.

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Study these flashcards. Kendra H. Cannot he seen with unaided eyes. Bacteria contd. Yeasts: are used in alcoholic fermentations and bread making. Molds: are filamentous, branched fungi. Flagellates : use flagella in movement.

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Ciliates : use cilia as instrument for movement. Some species are nonmotile. Example: are the diatoms and dinoflagellates. Helminthes parasitic worms.

microbiology chapter 1 notes

Recombinant DNA technology. There are about:. It is the proportion of deaths to population, mortality rate.

USMLE Step 1 Lecture Notes, Microbiology/Immunology PDF Free Download [Direct Link]

The frequency and proportion of an illness in a population, morbidity rate. It was impractical. Taxonomy consists of 3 things:. Make predictions based on knowledge of similar organisms -to understand evolutionary connections.To login with Google, please enable popups.

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Sign up with Google or Facebook. To sign up you must be 13 or older. Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Already have an account? Log in. Get started today! Microbiology Chapter 1. Edit a Copy. Study these flashcards. Fernanda R. Taxonomic system. What are the classifications in order? Life Domain Kingdom Phylum Class order family genus species. Malaria causing protozoa that are non-motile in their mature forms.

Single-celled eukaryote that are similar to animals in their nutritional needs and cellular structure capable of locomotion typically live freely in H 2 O but some live inside animal hosts where they cause disease reproduce asexually but also sexually.

How do Fungi differ from plants and animals? Differ from plants because they obtain food from other organisms rather than making it for themselves - photosynthesis they differ from animals by having a cell wall. Pseudopodia cilia flagella. What were the four questions scientist were asking in the "Golden Age of Microbiology"?

Is spontaneous generation of microbial life possible? What causes fermentation? What causes disease? How can we prevent infection and disease? British Investigator boiled beef gravy and infusions of plant material in vials and tightly sealed them with corks and a few days later the vials were cloudy and there were "microscopical animals of most dimensions" agreeing with spontaneous generation. What are the four steps to the Scientific Method? A group of observations leads a scientist to ask a question about some phenomenon the scientist generates a hypothesis-that is, a potential answer to the question The scientist designs and conducts an experiment to test the hypothesis Based on the observed results of the experiment, the scientist either accepts, rejects, or modifies the hypothesis.

Introduction To Microbiology

What are theories or laws? Accepted hypotheses that explain many observation and are repeatedly verified by numerous scientists over many years.The majority of of micro organisms actually help maintain the balance of living organisms and chemicals in our environment.

True or False. For digestion and the synthesis of of some vitamins that their bodies require including some vitamin b for metabolism and vitamin k for blood clotting. The process by which microbes produce acetone and butanol. The importance of this was WW1 was breaking out and his discovery produced cordite a smokeless form of gun powder used in munitions.

It played a significant role in the outcome of the war. They can be manipulated to produce substances that they don't normally synthesize. Such as cellulose, digestive aids, and other therapeutic substances such as insulin.

Andrea has what appears to be a small spider bite but it turns out to be a staph infection.

microbiology chapter 1 notes

The doctor prescribes B-lactam antibiotic why doesn't kill the staph? Mutations develop randomly and some are nothing and some are fatal and some beneficial. Once these mutations develop the offspring of the parent cells also carry the same mutation. Because they have an advantage in the presence of the antibiotic bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics soon out number those that are susceptible to antibiotic therapy.

The widespread use of antibiotics selectively allows the resistant bacteria to grow whereas susceptible bacteria are killed. Eventually almost all the entire population is is resistant to antibiotic. The specific epithet aureus id lati for golden the color of many colonies of the bacterium.

microbiology chapter 1 notes

Bacillus- rodlike coccus-spherical or ovoid spiral- corkscrew or curved some are star shaped or square. Use organic chemicals which can derived fro either dad or lving organisms.

Some bacteria can manufacture their own food by photosynthesis and some can derive nutrition from inorganic substances. Are eukaryotes; organisms whose cells have a distinct nucleus containing the cell's genetic material DNA, surrounded by a special envelope called the nuclear membrane. Free entities parasites - organisms that derive nutrients from living hosts- or environment. Photosynthetic - they use light as a source of energy and carbon dioxide as their chief source of carbon to produce sugars.

They are so small can only be seen with a electron microscope and they are acellular not cellular. Viruses are considered to be living only when they multiply within the host cells that they infect. What are those classifications?

Medical procedures- he knew that fever and other ailments were being passed from person to person when medical instruments we not cleaned and hands not washed.

He realized that phenol carbolic acid killed bacteria so he began treating surgical wounds with phenol. Edward Jenner - small pox using cow pox a much milder version to see if having a milder version could protect you from getting small pix. Bacteria lost its virulence or became avirulent when grown in the laboratory. This would induce immunity against subsequent virulent counterparts.

Treatment of disease using a chemical substance The term also commonly refers to chemical treatment of noninfectious diseases like cancer. The fact that some chemicals are more poisonous to microorganisms than to the hosts infected with the microbes. True or false the toxicity of microorganisms to humans is a leading cause as to why medicines for treating viral diseases.

Genetic changes in microbes that allows them to tolerate a small amount of antibiotic that would typically inhibit them.

Microbiology Chapter 1

The study of immunity and have produced vaccines against numerous diseases such as MMR German Measles mumps and chicken pox. Do humans no harm and actually benefit u by protecting us against disease and some produce helpful substances such as vitamin K and B. Sign in. Microbiology Chapter 1 Cards. Set Details Share. Grade levels: College: First year, College: Second year.Related Flashcards. Create Flashcards Flashcards. Microbiology Chapter 1.

Please view the flashcard to rate it. Flashcards Memorize Quiz Match Gravity. Micro notes. View Flashcards. Number of cards: All 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 Changes are done, please view the flashcard.

Shuffle Cards. Front Back Robert Hooke. Koch's postulates and anthrax. How you you name and classify microorganisms? Each organism is assigned two names, a genus and a specific epithet species. They have to be underlined if written by hand and italicized if typed. The genus is always capitalized and the species is always lower cased. Eubacteria 2. Archaea 3. Bacteria prokaryote with peptidoglycan cell walls. Bacteria prokaryote without peptidoglycan cell walls.

Includes the following four kingdoms of eukaryotes: 1. Protista 2. Fungi 3. Plantae 4.

microbiology chapter 1 notes

Consist of slime molds, protozoa, and some algae.Want to cite, share, or modify this book? This book is Creative Commons Attribution License 4. Skip to Content.

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Microbiology Summary. Table of contents. Review Questions. Answer Key. It was a long-held belief dating back to Aristotle and the ancient Greeks.

Experimentation by Francesco Redi in the 17th century presented the first significant evidence refuting spontaneous generation by showing that flies must have access to meat for maggots to develop on the meat. Prominent scientists designed experiments and argued both in support of John Needham and against Lazzaro Spallanzani spontaneous generation. Louis Pasteur is credited with conclusively disproving the theory of spontaneous generation with his famous swan-neck flask experiment.

The work of scientists such as Schleiden, Schwann, Remak, and Virchow contributed to its acceptance. Endosymbiotic theory states that mitochondria and chloroplasts, organelles found in many types of organisms, have their origins in bacteria. Significant structural and genetic information support this theory. The miasma theory of disease was widely accepted until the 19th century, when it was replaced by the germ theory of disease thanks to the work of Semmelweis, Snow, Pasteur, Lister, and Koch, and others.

In addition, prokaryotic cells generally lack membrane-bound organelles. Prokaryotic cells of the same species typically share a similar cell morphology and cellular arrangement.

Most prokaryotic cells have a cell wall that helps the organism maintain cellular morphology and protects it against changes in osmotic pressure. Outside of the nucleoid, prokaryotic cells may contain extrachromosomal DNA in plasmids. Prokaryotic ribosomes that are found in the cytoplasm have a size of 70S. Some prokaryotic cells have inclusions that store nutrients or chemicals for other uses. Some prokaryotic cells are able to form endospores through sporulation to survive in a dormant state when conditions are unfavorable.

Endospores can germinatetransforming back into vegetative cells when conditions improve. In prokaryotic cells, the cell envelope includes a plasma membrane and usually a cell wall. Bacterial membranes are composed of phospholipids with integral or peripheral proteins. The fatty acid components of these phospholipids are ester-linked and are often used to identify specific types of bacteria.

The proteins serve a variety of functions, including transport, cell-to-cell communication, and sensing environmental conditions. Archaeal membranes are distinct in that they are composed of fatty acids that are ether-linked to phospholipids. Some molecules can move across the bacterial membrane by simple diffusion, but most large molecules must be actively transported through membrane structures using cellular energy.

Prokaryotic cell walls may be composed of peptidoglycan bacteria or pseudopeptidoglycan archaea. Gram-positive bacterial cells are characterized by a thick peptidoglycan layer, whereas gram-negative bacterial cells are characterized by a thin peptidoglycan layer surrounded by an outer membrane. Some prokaryotic cells have fimbriae or pilifilamentous appendages that aid in attachment to surfaces. Pili are also used in the transfer of genetic material between cells.

Some prokaryotic cells use one or more flagella to move through water. Peritrichous bacteria, which have numerous flagella, use runs and tumbles to move purposefully in the direction of a chemical attractant. Eukaryotic cells contain 80S ribosomes in the rough endoplasmic reticulum membrane bound-ribosomes and cytoplasm free ribosomes. They contain 70s ribosomes in mitochondria and chloroplasts.